Topics and Themes in Social Issues in Health Care Custom Paper

Topics and Themes in Human Physiology – Cardio-vascular, Respiratory and
Gastro-intestinal Systems
Assignment Title :
In consultation with your tutor, draw up a plan for an independent research project.
Carry out your research project and write up your findings in a report.
An investigation into the effect of different durations of aerobic exercise on heart rate and blood pressure
Equipment list
Stepping board, stop watch, metronome, pulse monitor, blood pressure monitor
Assignment Brief:
Choose a topic relevant to the content of this unit that will form the theme for your research (LO1)
Write a plan for your investigation that identifies your aims / hypothesis, your methodology and possible sources of information, It may or may not include practical experimentation
Carry out your investigation, collecting and recording your data / information
Keep accurate records of all sources used
Write up your findings in an appropriate format, offering some analysis and evaluation
Acknowledge all of your sources using appropriate Harvard conventions
Learning Outcomes Assessment Criteria
The learner should be able to: The Learner has achieved this outcome because s/he can:
1.0 Negotiate an appropriate theme and title with the subject tutor for an independent research project linked to the content matter of this unit 1.1 Identify an appropriate theme and title for a research project
1.2 Select appropriate aims and develop them into a hypothesis for the research project
2.0 Draw up a plan for carrying out the research project 2.1 Identify some key stages in the research
2.2 Produce a completed outline proposal for an investigation
3.0 Identify and select a range of appropriate sources to be used in the research project 3.1 Describe and justify the choice of a range of sources to be used in the project
3.2 Produce a bibliography of all sources used
4.0 Identify and select research methodology appropriate to the discipline 4.1 Describe the research methodology to be used in the project
5.0 Collect and analyse data appropriate to the aims of the research project 5.1 Use appropriate sources to select relevant data / information
5.2 Independently interpret data / information gathered accurately
6.0 Produce an individual research project report on a named topic with an appropriate structure, content and word length 6.1 Write a project report that contains an aim or hypothesis, an introduction, analysis of source material, in-text references, a bibliography and appendices if appropriate
Grading the assignment – Please read the information below carefully.
Once you achieve the Learning Outcomes for this assignment, you will be awarded the 6 credits for the unit. You will also be eligible for grading against the following 5 descriptors:
Application of Knowledge
Application of Skills
Use of Information
Autonomy / Independence

Make use of this words when writing your report for the project
Measurements that have little spread around the mean are said to be precise.
A prediction is a statement suggesting what will happen in the future, based on observation, experience or a hypothesis.
The maximum and minimum values of the dependent or independent variable.
A reliable measurement is one which consistently remains the same after several repeats.
A measurement is repeatable if the original experimenter repeats the investigation using the same method and equipment and obtains the same results.
A measurement is reproducible if the investigation is repeated by another person or using different equipment or techniques and the same results are obtained.
This is the smallest change in the quantity being measured of a measuring instruments that gives a perceptible change in the reading.
A line graph that shows the general shape of the relationship between the two variables. It will not have any points plotted, and although the axes will be labelled they may not be scaled.
This is the value that would be obtained in an ideal measurement.
The interval within which the true value can be expected to lie, with a given level of confidence or probability.
Suitability of the investigative procedure to answer the questions being asked.
A conclusion supported by valid data, obtained from an appropriate experimental design and based on sound reasoning.
These are physical chemical or biological quantities or characteristics.
Have values that are labels. E.g Names of plants or types of materials.
Can have any value (quantity) that can be given a magnitude. E.g Human heights, light intensity
One which may, in addiction to the independent variable, affect the outcome of the investigation and therefore must be kept constant or monitored.
The variable which is measured for every change of the independent variable
The variable for which values are changed or selected by the investigator.
Project write-up (general guidelines)
What you did (in brief).
Generally what do the results show? (ref. affect of exercise on heart rate / blood pressure (including specific values).
Do the results support your hypothesis?
Were the results consistent throughout? (if not ref. technical error).
Must be fully referenced
Short term effects of exercise on human physiology including reference to;
Stroke volume / cardiac output
Nervous control of heart beat = increased heart rate
= increased volume of blood returning to the heart (venous return) stretches cardiac muscle. Therefore muscle contracts more forcefully = increased stroke volume. This may therefore increase systolic blood pressure.
Breathing (nervous control)
Hormonal control (release of adrenaline)
Two of the body’s responses to exercise are therefore an increase in heart rate (cardiac out put increases) and an increase in systolic blood pressure. Both of theses responses can be measured and recorded. Therefore in this investigation…………… (brief description of what will be done with mention of; how blood pressure / heart rate can be taken, the subjects and the exercise)
Reference to importance of formulating a questionnaire
2 needed
Independent V = Length of time exercise is performed
Dependent V = Change in heart rate / blood pressure that is recorded
Controlled V = Stepper at a set level (stated). Why?
= Same apparatus used throughout
= Intensity of exercise controlled. How?
= Same conditions e.g. time of day, temperature, clothing
Health and safety
You must take into consideration the health and safety issues associated with the investigation.
Materials and methods
Full list of materials used to include the blood pressure meter / heart rate meter model type and manufacturers error.
Full description of the method used with justification of the steps used to acquire data. Methods should be in an appropriate sequence and style.
Results and discussion
Calculations to include;
Percentage changes in HR, BP and/or BR (explain why you are using this data)
Calculation of means (averages) for whole group data (all subjects considered together)
Possible additional calculations to include;
Heart rate / systolic blood pressure values taking into consideration the inherent error of the apparatus used (note. Heart rate meter with manufacturer’s error +/- 5 %, Blood pressure monitor with manufacturer’s error +/- 3 mm Hg).
Standard deviation and/or standard error
Consideration of T-test (to prove / disprove hypothesis).
Tables / graphs
Tables must be presented appropriately with units in column headings only
Graphs must have appropriately labelled axis and points must be plotted accurately if line graphs are used.
Tables and graphs must be given a clear title.
Legends may be used to explain trends in the tables / graphs
All raw data (including calculations and any additional graphs / Tables) must be present in your appendix.
Discussion of results
The results must be discussed with direct reference to the values obtained (i.e. average heart rate and systolic blood pressure values).
The results must be discussed and justified with direct reference to background information on the effects of exercise on human physiology.
Include references were relevant.
Comment on the overall findings. Were they as expected and do they support the hypothesis formulated.
Was the procedure used in the investigation suitable- refer to the accuracy of results and the appearance of anomalous results.
What are the limitations in the investigative technique and how could these have resulted in errors. Consideration could be;
using the apparatus (inexperience in operation)
Accuracy of the apparatus (instrument error)
Were the conditions kept constant? (ref. Temp, same room used, clothing)
Was the stepper appropriate? Could it have been made higher? What effect would this have had?
Resting heart rate can change even before the start of physical activity due to adrenaline release.
Subjects knew that they were about to partake in exercise. Therefore heart rate at rest could have been taken at a longer period of time before exercise.
You need to refer to sampling. Were there enough participants used to obtain truly valid data. Remember that studies researching the effects of a parameter on human physiology usually involve the use of hundreds or even thousands of participants. In addition the study will normally concentrate of participants within a specific group (e.g. smokers / non-smokers, a specific age range, or a particular level of fitness).
Suggest reasons for anomalous results (e.g. faulty apparatus, inexperience in using the apparatus, plus consideration of uncontrollable variables such as diet, fitness, smoking, difficulty in controlling intensity).
Suggested improvements to include the following;
Different durations of exercise (e.g. 5 mins). Why?
More subjects. Why?
More repeats. Why?
Use of a metronome to control exercise intensity
Use of bikes or a tread mill instead of a stepper. Why?
Using alternative methods for recording heart rate / blood pressure e.g. manual method

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